Rules of Using Past Perfect Tense

Past Tense is used to determine the action of a verb that began in the past. Based on the formation of the sentence, It can also be used to describe the moment that took place near the present time.

 

Past Perfect Tense takes the structure:

a. Ram + had + gone + to the market.
b. They + had + slept + early at night.
c. I + had + eaten + the cake.

Here, ( v3 represents the Past Participle form of the verb. Read Now:

Moving on, We will be discussing certain rules, and the uses of Past Perfect Tense with Examples. Let’s Begin.

Rule 1 – Two Actions in the Past

If two actions took place in the past, then Past Perfect Tense is used with the Previous Action and Simple Past Tense is used with the Subsequent Action.

 

For Example:

  1. She had written her name on the black-board.
  2. My teacher had taught chapter 5.
  3. The dogs had fought over a piece of bread.

Rule 2 – Present Perfect to Past Perfect

When the reporting verb in the direct speech is in past tense and the reported speech is in present perfect tense, the present perfect tense is changed into past perfect tense in the indirect speech.

 

For Example:

  1. He said, “He has read the novel”. (Direct)
    He said that He had read the novel. (Indirect)
  2. Ram wrote, “He has managed the firm alone”. (Direct)
    Ram wrote that He had managed the firm alone. (Indirect)

Rule 3 – Simple Past to Past Perfect

When the reporting verb in the direct speech is in past tense and the reported speech is in simple past tense, the simple past tense is changed into past perfect tense in the indirect speech.

 

For Example:

  1. The criminal said, “I looted the bank”. (Direct)
    He criminal said that He had looted the novel. (Indirect)
  2. She said to me, “Gracy cam late”. (Direct)
    Ram said to me that Gracy had come late. (Indirect)

Rule 4 – To describe unreal situations

Past perfect tense is used to describe the unreal situations after these expressions – I wish, We wish, He wishes, She wishes, They wish, As if, As though etc.

 

For Example:

  1. She wishes she had been born in 1948.
  2. She talks to me as if she had come from the film industry.

Rule 5 – To describe unreal situations

Generally the verbs – hope, expect, think, mean, intend, suppose, want are used to express an action expected to be happen in the past.

 

In this case, these verbs are used in past perfect tense. For Example:

  1. I had hoped that he would come to see my daughter.
  2. He had wanted to see me but unfortunately he fell ill.
  3. Ritu had expected a baby boy.
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